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Publication Ethics

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For the policies on research and publication ethics not stated, the Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr/) can be applied.

1. Conflict-of-Interest statement
Conflict of interest exists when an author or the author’s institution, reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence or bias his or her actions. Such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties. These relationships vary from being negligible to having great a potential for influencing judgment. Not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. On the other hand, the potential for conflict of interest can exist regardless of whether an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, and paid expert testimony are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely ones to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, or of the science itself. Conflicts can occur for other reasons as well, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion (http://www.icmje.org/conflicts-of-interest/). If there are any conflicts of interest, authors should disclose them in the manuscript. The conflicts of interest may occur during the research process as well; however, it is important to provide disclosure. If there is a disclosure, editors, reviewers, and reader can approach the manuscript after understanding the situation and background for the completed research.
2. Statement of human and animal rights
Clinical research should be done in accordance with the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, as outlined in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised 2008) (available from: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/). Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. For publication, the human subjects’ identifiable information, such as the patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, the research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.
3. Statement of informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval
Copies of written informed consents should be saved for studies on human subjects. For clinical studies using human subjects, there should be a certificate, an agreement, or the approval of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the author’s affiliated institution. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct.
4. Registration of the clinical trial research
Any research that deals with a clinical trial (RCT) should be registered with the primary national clinical trial registry site such as national registry sites accredited by the World Health Organization (http://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/), ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/), a service of the United States National Institutes of Health or the Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS, http://cris.nih.go.kr).
5. Authorship
Authors should meet these four conditions. If any author does not meet the above four criteria, he or she may be placed as contributors in the Acknowledgments section. Description of co-first authors or co-corresponding authors is also accepted if the corresponding author believes that they played a role in the contribution to the manuscript.
Authorship credit should be based on: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) final approval of the version to be published; and 4) agreeing to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that the questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
6. Originality and duplicate publication
All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be under the consideration of other scientific journals for publication. No part of the accepted manuscript must be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the permission of the Editorial Board, although the figures and tables can be used freely if the original source is verified according to the Creative Commons license. It is mandatory for all authors to resolve any copyright issues when citing a figure or table from any other journal that is not open access.
7. Secondary publication
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the conditions for secondary publication of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), available from http://www.icmje.org/. These are as follows:
  • 1) The authors have received approval from the editors of both journals (the editor concerned with the secondary publication must have access to the primary version).

  • 2) The priority for the primary publication is respected by a publication interval negotiated by editors of both journals and the authors.

  • 3) The paper for secondary publication is intended for a different group of readers; an abbreviated version could be sufficient.

  • 4) The secondary version faithfully reflects the data and interpretations of the primary version.

  • 5) The secondary version informs readers, peers, and documenting agencies that the paper has been published in whole or in part elsewhere—for example, with a note that might read, “This article is based on a study first reported in the [journal title, with full reference]”—and the secondary version cites the primary reference.

  • 6) The title of the secondary publication should indicate that it is a secondary publication (complete or abridged republication or translation) of a primary publication. Of note, the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) does not consider translations to be “republications” and does not cite or index them when the original article was published in a journal that is indexed in MEDLINE.

8. Process to manage the research and publication misconduct
When the journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as a redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflicts of interest, an ethical problem discovered in the submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and any other issue, the resolving process will be followed according to the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are conducted by the Editorial Board of Exercise Medicine.
9. Similarity Check
Please be aware that Sapientia Publishing Group checks ALL submitted manuscripts for plagiarism. We use Crossref Similarity Check powered by iThenticate.


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AUTHOR INFORMATION
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Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Gachon University
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